Fly Like A Lamassu - In this episode we learn about the first ancient highway, winged gate guardians, and the man who brought the vast Persian Empire to its knees. It depicts the king…Read more
Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies A Brief History of Persian Empire The civilization on the Iranian plateau is very ancient; copper was smelted there about BC, and Elam in the lowlands lagged only slightly behind Sumer in the development of hieroglyphic writing 5, years ago.
However, the Elamites adopted the written language of Akkadian as the most universal language of the area for two millennia. An overlord in Susa ruled over vassal princes.
The oldest written document of a treaty found so far was between the Akkadian Naram-Sin and an Elamite king about 43 centuries ago. Much of what is known about Elamite civilization comes to us from Sumerian, Babylonian and Assyrian records.
The cities of Susa and Anshan were important links for trade and communication between Mesopotamia and the Harrapan culture of the Indus valley. Elam overthrew the Third dynasty of Ur in the 21st century BC; three centuries later they were conquered by Babylon's Hammurabi, but they were able to defeat his son.
In the 17th century BC when the Kassites began to take over Babylon, they also dominated Elam, as Aryans came through Iran on their way to India bringing Indo-Iranian languages in the first half of the second millennium BC.
Elam clashed with Assyria in the thirteenth century BC but reached its height of power in the twelfth century BC when Shutruk-nahhunte I overthrew the Kassites in Babylon, and his son took the statue of Marduk to Susa.
King Shilkhak-Inshushinak invaded Assyria as far as Ashur and besieged Babylon, establishing a brief Elamite empire which used the proto-Elamite script in its inscriptions. However, before the twelfth century was over, Babylon's Nebuchadrezzar I defeated the Elamites and took Marduk's statue back.
For the next three centuries little is known of Elamite culture. Assyrian military campaigns against Elam in the eighth century The history of the persian empire increased in the seventh century climaxing in BC when Ashurbanipal's armies destroyed Susa and sowed the land with salt.
Elam continued to exist for another century but never rose to power again.
The name Iran derives from the word "Aryan," and in the first half of the first millennium BC Iranian-speaking peoples moved gradually into the area of the Zagros mountains, the largest groups being the Medes and the Persians. More effective use of iron tools and irrigation from the ninth to the seventh centuries BC enabled the Iranians to farm more successfully and increase population in the plains.
The Aryans brought horses and chariots, and their use of cavalry stimulated the Assyrians to do the same. Urartu led by its king Rusas I tried to fight back against the Assyrians, and the semi-legendary first king of the Medes, Daiukku, was said to have united dozens of tribal chiefs to join the effort.
According to Herodotus Daiukku had been made king because of his reputation for making fair judgments. From the northwest came Scythians and Cimmerians who devastated Urartu so badly that Rusas committed suicide. While Assyrian king Sennacherib was busy fighting Babylon, Elam, Egypt, and Judea, the Medes rallied around Khshathrita called Phraortes by Herodotusthe son of Daiukku, and with Cimmerians as allies and Persians as vassals they attacked Nineveh in BC but were defeated, and Khshathrita was killed.
The Scythians took advantage of this opportunity by invading and subjugating the Medes for 28 years. Herodotus told how the next Median king Cyaxares killed the drunken Scythian chieftains at a banquet and went on to recover Median power.
The prophet Nahum indicated that the growing hatred of the Assyrian nobility, priests, military, administrators, and merchants was going to bring about the downfall of that empire. Adopting the specialized military units that had been used by the Urartians and Assyrians for more than a century, the Medes marched west and took Arrapkha in BC, surrounded Nineveh the next year, and then went on to take Ashur by storm.
Nineveh fell in BC with help from the Babylonians. The Assyrian empire was divided between the Medes and the Babylonians. Babylon ruled over the fertile crescent, while Media controlled the north and east. The Medes came into conflict with Lydia, the major power in Asia Minor, and fought with them for five years before an eclipse of the sun stimulated them to agree to a truce mediated by Babylonians in BC.
The Persian empire: c BC The Persian system of taxation is tailored to each satrapy (the area ruled by a satrap, or provincial governor). At differing times there are between 20 and 30 satrapies in the empire, and each is assessed according to its supposed productivity. The Persian satrapy of Armenia briefly cedes from the Achaemenid Empire but is brought under control by Darius I. BCE Darius I of Persia fights the Scythians (not very successfully). This is the unabridged version of this book, and as such it is very comprehensive. It was published in (the paperback version in , but I do not believe that the book was updated between and 59 as the author died before the publication date).
That same year Astyages succeeded as Median king and ruled for 35 years. Perhaps influenced by Zarathushtra, Astyages was reluctant to engage in continual conquest and thus alienated the ambitious aristocracy. A plot of the nobles was organized by Hypargus, and border tribes were incited to rebel by Oebares and others.
Faced with the Persian revolt and the betrayal of the aristocracy, Astyages was captured, and the royal city of Ecbatana had to submit to Cyrus, according to Ctesias because Cyrus threatened to torture his daughter Amytis, whom Cyrus later married.
The mother of Cyrus was a daughter of the Median king Astyages. Herodotus, who delighted in relating stories of how oracles and dreams unexpectedly came true, wrote that because of a dream Astyages tried to have Cyrus murdered when he was a baby; but Hypargus did not want to kill him and left it to another who saved the child.
When the boy was found to be acting like a king he was discovered and returned to his true mother and father. This ironic story may have been fabricated to justify Cyrus for overthrowing his grandfather.
As a vassal king in Anshan Cyrus ruled from his capital at Parsagarda and united seven Persian princes into a royal council under his leadership.history of the persian empire - Oriental Institute. The Persian Empire was the largest Empire that had ever been established.
The Persian Empire spanned from Egypt in the west to Turkey in the north, and through Mesopotamia to the Indus River in the east. Map Description Historical Map of the Persian Empire B.C. Illustrating: Boundaries of the Persian Empire - Route of Xenophan and the 10, Credits Courtesy of the United States Military Academy Department of History.
Another time period in the history of the Persian Empire noted for art and architecture is the Sasanian or Sassanid Era (), sometimes called the Second Persian Empire. The Persian empire had lost Egypt, but they had retained Asia. Imperial taxation was still oppressive, stimulating many revolts and uprisings by workers that were often put down by local tyrants, while newly minted coins indicated a growing wealthy class and economic development.
Writing About History: Explanations 1 The Origins and Impacts of the Persian Empire The origin of the Persian Empire can be attributed to the leadership of one man—Cyrus the Great. A brilliant and powerful Persian king, Cyrus’ strategy Median and Persian nobles to be civilian ofﬁ cials.
Next, Cyrus used his.