Study Guide Prepared by Michael J.
The class struggle between the Populares party of the people and the Optimates the senatorial aristocracy resulted in internal revolution and rioting in the streets, which led to the Senate appointing dictators to keep the peace. The political rivalries between such strong men as Gaius Marius and Lucius Cornelius Sulla culminated in a power struggle and outright war prior to the birth of Gaius Julius Caesar in BC.
Caesar demonstrated political acumen at a very young age. He seemed to sense opportunity in the disruptive environment of 1st-century BC Roman politics. Although he could boast of a noble heredity, his early political life was tied to the Populares. Starting with a series of minor offices, he consistently rose within the political establishment.
He continued to develop his populist image, and he was finally elected pontifex maximus, the head of the state religion, in 63 BC. He also saw a chance to increase his power by supporting bills granting the military leader Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, or Pompey the Great, his important assignments.
In 61 BC Caesar got his first overseas command: When he returned from Spain early in 60 BC, the staunch Republican Marcus Porcius Cato Minor Cato Julius caesar political campaign speech Younger led the Senate in blocking his request to be allowed to stand for the consulship in absentia, and further acted to discourage his rise.
Caesar retaliated by seeking the support of Pompey and Marcus Licinius Crassus, who were also troubled by senatorial power. Caesar, after some political maneuvering, was granted Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum for five years, with command of three legions and the right to appoint his own officers and establish colonies.
When the governor-elect of Transalpine Gaul suddenly died, Caesar added that province to his command. As the stability of Rome further deteriorated, prominent politicians asked Pompey to assume command of all forces in Italy and save the Republic. When he accepted, Caesar knew that his position was severely threatened.
After unsuccessfully attempting to reach a compromise, Caesar crossed the Rubicon River to face Pompey in open civil war. He then followed his enemy across the Adriatic Sea into Greece. Pompey fled to Egypt, where he was murdered by his Ptolemaic hosts. By then, however, his year record of martial success, capped by outgeneraling Pompey at Pharsalus, had made him believe he was invincible.
Why not linger in the arms of Cleopatra? After a short campaign in Asia Minor, Caesar did return to Rome, restored order and quelled a mutiny among his troops. He was then ready to deal with the remaining Republican forces in North Africa.
This region had long been a problem for Caesar. In 49 BC one of his generals, the former tribune Gaius Curio, had been defeated while trying to placate its inhabitants. In the spring of 48, he sent orders to Quintus Cassius, his general in Spain, to invade Africa. Part of that army mutinied, however, and the campaign was canceled.
In contrast, the two kings of Mauretania, Bogud and Bocchus, were Roman allies. There, he had recruited armed bands of adventurers, which, to his great profit, he hired out as mercenaries to native princes. Metellus Scipio finally took overall command of the Republican forces opposing Caesar. The relationship between the Pompeians and King Juba was of primary importance.
The choice of a commander proved to be an extremely delicate matter. Juba, Scipio and Varus all hungered for the post, while the army favored Cato. Cato, however, wisely deferred leadership to Scipio, who had greater military credentials, and convinced Juba that the Romans were his protectors, not subordinates.
Cato confined his efforts to the city of Utica, where he prevented Scipio and Juba from exterminating the pro-Caesarean population. The combined forces poised against Caesar were formidable. Masinissa too possessed a considerable force.Plot summary of Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, complete annotated text, themes, criticism, analysis, figures of speech.
Gaius Julius Caesar (July 13, B.C.E. – March 15, 44 B.C.E.) was a Roman military and political leader whose role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire changed the course of Western civilization.
His conquest of Gaul extended the Roman world all the way to the. Force definition, physical power or strength possessed by a living being: He used all his force in opening the window.
See more. The military campaigns of Julius Caesar constituted both the Gallic War (58 BC BC) and Caesar's civil war (50 BCBC) in 59 BC, which had been highly controversial. The Gallic War mainly took place in what is now France.
On August 9, 48 bc, the power struggle for Rome reached its climax as Gaius Julius Caesar faced off against the commander he regarded as the most formidable adversary of his military career: Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. This city was un-happy with Caesar for taking over, but I convinced them our leader Caesar, was good and that they should be thanking him, while Caesar toured the cities all the others were angry with him for taking over, but in my city we held celebrations.
Julius Caesar was very surprised, and happy at this.