Backstory Story that precedes events in the story being told—past events or background that add meaning to current circumstances Though The Lord of the Rings trilogy takes place in a relatively short period towards the end of the year Third Age, the narration gives glimpses of the mythological and historical events which took place earlier in the Third age leading up to the action in the novel, and in the First and Second Age. Cliffhanger The narrative ends unresolved, to draw the audience back to a future episode for the resolution.
Inter-religious utopias[ edit ] The inter-religious utopia is similar to multiculturalism where real world cultures have successfully worked together to create a wider society based on shared values. A transparent ideology of God and religion used in inter-religious utopias is commonly stated by many people as their view of God manifesting within a community.
Other inter-religious utopias may go even further and describe a religion where humans become God or merge with a primal force that reigned before the birth of the universe.
Religion and God could be used as a self-motivating factor for people to believe in and to raise themselves out of difficult situations. These utopian societies included the Shakerswho originated in England in the 18th century and arrived in America in A number of religious utopian societies from Europe came to the United States from the 18th century throughout the 19th century, including the Society of the Woman in the Wilderness led by Johannes Kelpius —the Ephrata Cloister established inand the Harmony Societyamong others.
The Harmony Society was a Christian theosophy and pietist group founded in IptingenGermanyin On February 15,about followers formally organized the Harmony Society, placing all their goods in common.
The group lasted untilmaking it one of the longest-running financially successful communes in American history. Although this utopian experiment has become better known today for its manufacture of Oneida silverware, it was one of the longest-running communes in American history.
The Amana Colonies were communal settlements in Iowastarted by radical German pietistswhich lasted from to The Amana Corporationmanufacturer of refrigerators and household appliances, was originally started by the group.
The Amish and Hutterites can also be considered an attempt towards religious utopia. A wide variety of intentional communities with some type of faith-based ideas have also started across the world.
Apocatastasis A new heaven and new earth [Rev The main difference compared to the Old Testament promises is that such a defeat also has an ontological value Rev There will be no more death' or mourning or crying or pain, for the old order of things has passed away" and no longer just gnosiological Isaiah Daily and mundane details of this new Earth, where God and Jesus rule, remain unclear, although it is implied to be similar to the biblical Garden of Eden.
Some theological philosophers believe that heaven will not be a physical realm, but instead an incorporeal place for souls. Though Francis Bacon 's New Atlantis is imbued with a scientific spirit, scientific and technological utopias tend to be based in the future, when it is believed that advanced science and technology will allow utopian living standards ; for example, the absence of death and suffering ; changes in human nature and the human condition.
Technology has affected the way humans have lived to such an extent that normal functions, like sleep, eating or even reproduction, have been replaced by artificial means.
Other examples include a society where humans have struck a balance with technology and it is merely used to enhance the human living condition e. In place of the static perfection of a utopia, libertarian transhumanists envision an " extropia ", an open, evolving society allowing individuals and voluntary groupings to form the institutions and social forms they prefer.
Mariah Utsawa presented a theoretical basis for technological utopianism and set out to develop a variety of technologies ranging from maps to designs for cars and houses which might lead to the development of such a utopia.
One notable example of a technological and libertarian socialist utopia is Scottish author Iain Banks ' Culture. Opposing this optimism is the prediction that advanced science and technology will, through deliberate misuse or accident, cause environmental damage or even humanity's extinction.
Critics, such as Jacques Ellul and Timothy Mitchell advocate precautions against the premature embrace of new technologies. Both raise questions about changing responsibility and freedom brought by division of labour. Authors such as John Zerzan and Derrick Jensen consider that modern technology is progressively depriving humans of their autonomy, and advocate the collapse of the industrial civilization, in favor of small-scale organization, as a necessary path to avoid the threat of technology on human freedom and sustainability.
There are many examples of techno-dystopias portrayed in mainstream culture, such as the classics Brave New World and Nineteen Eighty-Fouroften published as "", which have explored some of these topics. Feminism[ edit ] Utopias have been used to explore the ramifications of genders being either a societal construct, or a biologically "hard-wired" imperative, or some mix of the two.
For example, Edward Bellamy 's Looking Backward responded, progressively for his day, to the contemporary women's suffrage and women's rights movements. Bellamy supported these movements by incorporating the equality of women and men into his utopian world's structure, albeit by consigning women to a separate sphere of light industrial activity due to women's lesser physical strengthand making various exceptions for them in order to make room for and to praise motherhood.
One of the earlier feminist utopias that imagines complete separatism is Charlotte Perkins Gilman 's Herland In science fiction and technological speculationgender can be challenged on the biological as well as the social level.Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback.
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The Character Medea's Revenge in Euripides' Medea - The Character Medea's Revenge in Euripides' Medea Medea is a tragedy of a woman who feels that her husband has betrayed her with another woman and the jealousy that consumes her.
Published: Mon, 5 Dec The tragedy “Medea” was written in B.C. by the Greek playwright, Euripides. It is based upon the myth of Jason and Medea.
Euripides was a Greek tragedian, and his works were modern and attic at the same time. MEDEA DISCUSSION QUESTIONS Below are two interpretations of Jason and his role in the play, and three of Medea and her role in the play.
Be prepared to support any of these positions, using passages or actions in the play. The House of Seven Gables as a Gothic Novel - The House of Seven Gables as a Gothic Novel To be a paradigm of a Gothic novel, The House of Seven Gables needs to include many elements, all which center on the ideas of gloom, horror, and mystery.