Egyptian hieroglyphs with cartouches for the name " Ramesses II ", from the Luxor TempleNew Kingdom The history of literature follows closely the development of civilization. It did contain at least one feature of poetry left-justified linesbut the style of writing precludes the detection of certain other identifying features. This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations.
Cognitive Flexibility Evolutionists insist that genes constrain and direct human behavior.
Cultural constructivists counter that culture, embodied in the arts, shapes human experience. Both these claims are true, but some evolutionists and some cultural constructivists have mistakenly regarded them as mutually exclusive D.
Some evolutionists have either ignored the arts or tried to explain them away as epiphenomenal to the basic processes of life. In the past few years, evolutionists in both the sciences and the humanities have broken through this impasse, arguing that the imagination is a functional part of the adapted mind.
Revising that model makes it possible for us now fully to integrate the evolutionary human sciences and literary study. Cognitive modules—the neural machinery dedicated to sight, for example—are characterized by automaticity and efficiency. The idea of massive modularity thus carried within itself a general sense of humans as adaptation-executing automata.
The idea of massive modularity over-generalizes from the most hard-wired components of the brain. It is a massive oversimplification of human cognitive architecture, and it is already fading into the archives of intellectual history Geary; Sterelny.
How can literature teach us about human nature? Update Cancel. ad by Grammarly. Write with confidence. Literature about human nature could give us informations we need for our learning, intellectually. It is not an experiential learning, but intellectual. Not until we face the problem ourself will we ever understand what is to be on the spot. Fifteen years ago, I wrote a dissertation prospectus in which I dared to suggest that there was such a thing as human nature, that this human nature was the equivalent of evolved human psychology, that literary characters were representations of this evolved psychology, and that literary analysis should therefore be founded on an . The ubiquity of social media (e.g., Facebook, Twitter) is no more apparent than at the university. Social media are increasingly visible in higher education settings as instructors look to technology to mediate and enhance their instruction as well as promote active learning for students.
As he sees it, natural selection shaped human motives to maximize inclusive fitness within a hunter-gatherer ecology. Sociality and language were part of the human adaptive repertory.
Imaginative culture was not. To illustrate the by-product idea, Pinker draws parallels between art and pornography, psychoactive drugs, and rich foods like cheesecake.
He acknowledges that fictional narratives might have informational content of some utility in providing game-plans for practical problems that could arise. All the other features of the arts, he suggests, reflect only the human capacity to exploit evolved mechanisms for producing pleasure.
This sort of pleasure, detached from all practical value with respect to survival and reproduction, would be equivalent to the pleasure derived from masturbation. The distinguished sociobiologist Edward O.
Wilson offers a very different vision of human cognitive evolution. The Unity of KnowledgeWilson poses the same question posed by Pinker: If the arts are steered by inborn rules of mental development, they are end products not just of conventional history but also of genetic evolution.
Were the genetic guides mere byproducts—epiphenomena—of that evolution, or were they adaptations that directly improved survival and reproduction?
And if adaptations, what exactly were the advantages conferred? The adaptive value of high intelligence is that it provides the means for behavioral flexibility—for generating plans based on mental representations of complex relationships, engaging in collective enterprises requiring shared mental representations, and thus producing novel solutions to adaptive problems.
Behavioral flexibility has made of the human species the most successful alpha predator of all time, but achieving dominance in this way has come with a cost.
To the modern human mind, alone among all minds in the animal kingdom, the world does not present itself as a series of rigidly defined stimuli releasing a narrow repertory of stereotyped behaviors.
It presents itself as a vast and potentially perplexing array of percepts, inferences, causal relations, contingent possibilities, analogies, contrasts, and hierarchical conceptual structures.
The human mind is free to organize the elements of cognition in an infinitely diverse array of combinatorial possibilities. And most of those potential forms of organization, like most major mutations, would be fatal.
Freedom is the key to human success, and it is also an invitation to disaster. If instincts are defined as stereotyped programs of behavior released automatically by environmental stimuli, we can say that in humans the arts partially take the place of instinct.
Along with religion, ideology, and other emotionally charged belief systems, the arts form an imaginative interface between complex mental structures, genetically transmitted behavioral dispositions, and behavior.
The early EP conception of the mind supposes a sequence in which automatic cognitive processes evolved to solve adaptive problems specific to Pleistocene ecology, with the arts tacked on as side effects.ECOCRITICISM: NATURAL WORLD IN THE LITERARY VIEWFINDER basis for analyzing or interpreting the literary versions of nature/human relationships.
From the discursively manipulated nonhuman world in literature, and discuss how it gets marginalized or silenced by, or incorporated into the human language. We are pleased to announce winners of the third Bad Writing Contest, sponsored by the scholarly journal Philosophy and Literature and its internet discussion group, PHIL-LIT..
The Bad Writing Contest attempts to locate the ugliest, most stylistically awful passage found in a scholarly book or article published in the last few years.
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS. OF THE MAJOR WORLD RELIGIONS. FROM A CHRISTIAN PERSPECTIVE. by Ernest Valea. The goal of this site is to investigate whether or not there is sufficient evidence to prove that world religions are complementary, according to the model inspired by an old Indian tale - that of the blind men who tried to describe an elephant.
It is said that once upon a time a . inary figures in real carpets. The signal for a change of institutional views were in concord with those of most authors in world literature.
Coming of age in an intellectual world that had been transformed by Human Nature: Fact . How can literature teach us about human nature? Update Cancel.
ad by Grammarly. Write with confidence. Literature about human nature could give us informations we need for our learning, intellectually. It is not an experiential learning, but intellectual. Not until we face the problem ourself will we ever understand what is to be on the spot.
The human soul has an irrational element which is shared with the animals, and a rational element which is distinctly human. The most primitive irrational element is the vegetative faculty which is responsible for nutrition and growth.